32 Biosafety Manual • Any bites or other wounds must be washed immediately with soap and water and appropriate medical attention sought. All accidents and injuries occurring at work or in the course of employment must be reported to the individual’s supervisor, even if no medical attention is required. • Unauthorized persons are prohibited from entering animal rooms. Additional requirements may be specified for certain research studies. • HEPA filters must be changed every 5 years (per manufacturer’s standards) on animal cage racks which house animals infected with an organism that is worked with at BSL2 or tested to make sure they are functioning correctly. Animals in the Field Fieldwork involving wild animals requires adapting the basic animal infection-control guidelines to the particular situation in the field. Wild animals potentially transmit many diseases, including rabies, Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Ieptospirosis, West Nile virus infection, salmonellosis, tularemia, and plague. • Personnel working in areas where they are likely to be exposed to wild rodents or their nesting areas must follow the Guidelines for Experiments with Wild Rodents . • Rabies vaccinations must be offered to all personnel who may be exposed to wild animals. • Field work may also involve exposure to disease- transmitting insects and arthropods. Take appropriate precautions to prevent exposure to diseases, such as West Nile virus infection or Lyme Disease, transmitted by insect and arthropod vectors. Arthropod Research Some blood-sucking arthropod species can serve as vectors of infectious human pathogens. A competent arthropod vector (one that supports the development and transmission of a pathogen) that is infected with the infectious stage of a pathogen has potential to transmit that pathogen if an opportunity to feed on a host arises. As a result, it is critical to have guidelines in place to protect laboratory personnel, the campus community, and the general public from the risk associated with coming into contact with infected vector arthropods.