35 Biosafety Manual • All primary and immortalized human or other primate cell lines or tissue cultures must be handled using BSL-2 practices and containment. • Personnel handlinghumancell and tissueculturesmust participate in the Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control program. • If any cell or tissue cultures are known or suspected to contain a specific pathogen or oncogenic virus, appropriate biosafety practices for handling that virus must be used when working with the cell or tissue culture. • BSL-1 practices and containment may be used for cell lines that meet all of the following criteria. • Cells must: ¤ Not be of human or other primate origin. ¤ Beconfirmednot tocontainhumanor other primatepathogens, including viruses, pathogenic bacteria, mycoplasma, or fungi. ¤ Be well-established. Safety Equipment (Primary Containment) Primary containment equipment is designed to reduce or eliminate exposure to biohazardous materials. Biosafety cabinets (BSC) serve as the primary containment for biohazardous materials in the laboratory. Other types of primary containment equipment include sealed centrifuge cups and special airtight enclosures designed to contain specific laboratory equipment (such as sonicators) that are likely to produce aerosols of biohazardous materials. Biosafety Cabinets (BSC) What is a Biosafety Cabinet? BSCs are designed to protect personnel, the products being handled, and the environment from particulate hazards, such as infectious microorganisms. BSCs use uniform vertical laminar airflow to create a barrier to airborne particulates. BSCs utilize High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters to clean both the air entering the work area and the air exhausted to the environment. A biosafety cabinet is not a chemical fume hood. Chemical fume hoods are designed to protect personnel by removing chemical vapors and aerosols from the work area. The HEPA filter removes airborne particles from the air, but does not remove chemical fumes. Only biosafety cabinets that are exhausted via duct work are appropriate for use with small amounts of toxic volatile chemicals. Always use a fume hood when working with large amounts of toxic volatile chemicals.