52 Biosafety Manual Permit Requirements Special federal permits may be required for importing, exporting and/or transporting human pathogens, animal pathogens, animals or animal products, plant pathogens or plant pests, and plants or plant products. Permit requirements should be verified well in advance of needing the material in question, because some permits can take 60-180 days to receive. The biosafety staff can provide assistance with any questions about shipping and/or required permits for biological materials. For assistance in determining the need for a permit, see Permits on the EH&S website or call (515) 294-5359. Animals, Plants, Introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms The USDA, through itsAnimal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), regulates transport of materials that could potentially harm U.S. agricultural products, such as livestock or crops. For this reason, APHIS permits may be required for import and/or transport of animal or plant pathogens, soil samples, insects, import of animals, animal products, plants or plant products, or transport or introduction of genetically modified organisms into the environment. Special packaging may also be required for shipping regulated materials. The Packaging and Paperwork Requirements information, listed later in this section, provides details. Human Pathogens or Biological Toxins The Department of Health and Human Services, through the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), regulates the import and transport of biological materials that could cause illness in humans. These regulated biological materials include pathogenic bacteria or viruses, toxins from biological sources (for example, tetanus toxin, aflatoxin, etc.), blood or tissues capable of containing pathogens transmissible to humans and certain animals, and insects that may harbor disease-causing organisms. The information contained on the CDC website and biosafety staff can help determine if a permit is required and assist with the application process. CDC Importation Permits for Etiologic Agents Special packaging may also be required for shipping these materials. See the Packaging and Paperwork Requirements information, listed later in this section, for details.