Safety Data Sheets

Glossary The following glossary provides brief explanations of acronyms and common terms frequently used by chemical manufacturers in their SDSs. Explanations and definitions were compiled from various sources, but were gathered mainly from three sources: Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene, 4th ed. (National Safety Council), The Occupational Environment — Its Evaluation and Control, 2nd ed. (American Industrial Hygiene Association), and The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS - United Nations). Absorbed Dose ●● The mass or moles of exposing compound that enter(s) the bloodstream through any external routes of exposure; the absolute bioavailability. ●● Amount of a substance penetrating the tissues or organs of an organism after contact. Calculated from intake and absorption efficiency and expressed as mg/kg/day. Absorption The process of taking in a substance across the tissues or organs of an organism (skin, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract) and ultimately into body fluids and tissues. ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists is an organization of professional occupational safety and health programs. ACGIH establishes recommended occupational exposure limits for chemical substances and physical agents. See TLV. Acid Any chemical that undergoes dissociation in water with the formation of hydrogen ions. Acids have a sour taste and may cause severe skin burns. Acids turn litmus paper red and have pH values of 0 to 6. Activity The rate of disintegration or transformation or decay of radioactive material. The units of activity are the becqueral (bq) and the curie (Ci). Acute Effect An adverse effect (usually) arising from a short exposure (minutes to hours) to a chemical. Acute Exposure A large dose exposure over a short period of time. Acute Toxicity Acute effects resulting from a single exposure dose to a substance. Ordinarily used to denote effects in experimental animals. Adenocarcinoma A tumor with glandular (secreting) elements. Adenosis Any disease of a gland. Adhesion A union of two surfaces that are normally separate. Aerosol Solid or liquid particles of microscopic size dispersed in a gaseous medium, solid or liquid, suspended in air (dust, fumes, fog, and smoke). As the particles are so fine they often remain suspended in the air for a