Biosafety Manual

33 Biosafety Manual The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene drafted the Arthropod Containment Guidelines . These guidelines describe facilities, specific handling practices, and safety equipment for containment of arthropods of public health importance. The arthropods include, but are not limited to insects (Diptera – mosquitoes, tsetse flies, black flies, sand flies, midges; Hemiptera – reduvids; Anoplura – lice; Siphonaptera – fleas), and Arachnids (Ascari – ticks, mites). Typically containment is necessary for mobile stages (larvae/nymphs, adults) of the arthropod life cycle, but in certain vector-pathogen combinations, even eggs must be considered under these containment guidelines. Arthropod Containment Levels When arthropods covered in these guidelines are used, safe work practices, trained personnel, and appropriate facilities must be employed to ensure that personnel and the environment are protected from inadvertent release of the arthropod. The Arthropod Containment Guidelines describe standard practices, special practices, safety equipment (primary barriers), and facilities (secondary barriers). The IBC has the final authority to determine if the correct level of containment has been indicated on the protocol. The following is an explanation of each containment level: • ACL-1 is suitable for work with uninfected arthropod vectors or arthropods infected with a non-pathogen. This group would also include arthropods that are native to the region where work is being done, regardless of whether there is an active vector-borne disease transmission in the area, and non-native arthropods that, if they escape, would become inviable or only be able to establish temporarily in an area. This category would also include arthropods used for educational purposes. • ACL-2 is suitable for work with arthropods infected with agents worked with at BSL-2 or suspected of being infected with such agents. Uninfected arthropods that have been genetically modified are also placed in this category. This category builds on ACL-1 practices and is more stringent in the physical containment, disposal and facility design. Access is also more restricted than in ACL-1. • ACL-3 is suitable for work with arthropods infected with agents worked with at BSL-3 associated with human disease. This category builds uponACL-2 requirements and it is more stringent on access and more emphasis is put on the microbiological containment to determine which practices and facilities are appropriate for arthropods in this containment level. • ACL-4 is suitable for work with the most dangerous pathogen-